In simple words, biosecurity refers to the measures that aim to protect the birds or animals from disease-causing organisms. Additionally, poultry farmers take various steps to reduce the risk of spreading diseases in the farms. Biosecurity is nothing but is the safety of living beings.
Farmers find biosecurity as the most cost-effective means to stop the spread of disease-causing organisms. Further, this method also proves to be the most crucial means without which no other disease prevention program will succeed.
Use of Bio-Security In Backyard Poultry
A large population of poultry farmers is backyard poultry farmers. Additionally, while some tend to take this practice as a hobby, it is the livelihood source for many others. It is a major contributing sector in the nation’s economy. In India, a large population relies on backyard poultry for their sustenance. Hence, it becomes crucial to implement biosecurity to protect pullets and other birds from various deadly diseases.
One must know that different breeds may be immune to distinct diseases. Hence, one must not mix the pullets or birds of one breed with the other. Besides, cleanliness is a must. Moreover, to restrict the spread of diseases through outside pathogens, the farmers must also be careful to disinfect their hands, clothes.
In addition to taking these steps, the poultry farmers must also keep their birds away from other pets.
Environmental conditions play a significant role in maintaining the good health of the birds. The three different aspects of controlling diseases are biosecurity, medication, and good farm management. Further, biosecurity reduces the probability of catching diseases. This provides better surroundings to give medicine to the birds in the farms. Moreover, vaccination also becomes more beneficial in the presence of bio-security.
Different Levels of Bio-Security
There are different levels of biosecurity that help to protect poultry from diseases. These are as follows:
Also called the primary level, conceptual biosecurity mentions different locations of animal facilities.
Additionally, the best thing to do is build the farm away from the city or an isolated region. Moreover, experts advise having your breeder farm at least 3 km away from the nearest poultry. Furthermore, a broiler farm must at least be 1.5 km out.
Besides, breeder farms should also be at a reasonable distance from major roadways. Farms, in general, should be at a distance from the busy public roads. Also, farms should maintain a distance from the different facilities such as incubators, etc.
These isolation measures will protect the birds from catching diseases from outside.
Structural biosecurity is the secondary level of biosecurity. It talks about the various physical factors such as fencing, farm layout, etc.
Fencing helps the poultry farmers to keep unwanted visitors away. Additionally, structural biosecurity also mentions keeping the water sources clean. It tests them for minerals, pathogens, etc. Besides, it also checks for safe housing and the safe disposal of dead birds.
Besides, a good suggestion is to keep the land around the building free of vegetation. This step will prevent rodents from spreading unwanted diseases or pathogens.
The last level of biosecurity deals with maintaining the records of visitors. It also mentions regular culling of unhealthy birds, proper implementation of vaccine programs, etc. Moreover, it also talks about the disinfection of pieces of equipment, houses, etc.
Farm Management Tips
Various farm management steps prevent the spread of diseases. One of the steps is the isolation of the birds. Moreover, it is right to keep the rear bird of different age groups in distinct houses.
Likewise, the farmers should keep in mind that there is no presence of wet litter. Wet litter tends to attract harmful pathogens and can quickly become a source of diseases.
One can never forget the essential role of proper nutrition in keeping the birds healthy. Feeding the birds according to their nutritional requirements helps to keep the diseases at bay.
The quality of the chicks is yet another factor that needs the right amount of attention. Additionally, the farmers should check if these birds have a history of vaccination against Marek’s disease. Besides, they should also check the birds for dehydration.
Apart from these, farmers must also pay attention to water quality and sanitation to prevent the spread of diseases.
The significance of bio-security is immense in the poultry world. It is inclusive of all the factors that protect the birds from catching deadly diseases. Since it is also very cost-effective, farmers tend to choose bio-security to protect their birds. These measures make sure that the farmers don’t lose their source of income and livelihood.