Poultry farming is one of the most profitable aspects of animal husbandry. Certain equipment is required in order to obtain optimal results in your poultry farming operation.
This article will be useful to individuals who are in the process of launching a poultry farming business or are still in the planning stages. It’s also vital to note that this post is part of a series on poultry business plans. Without spending any more time, here is a complete list of poultry equipment and their applications.
I. Incubation apparatus
It is a machine that maintains the right temperature, humidity, and rotation for the first 19 days of a chicken egg’s incubation.
It’s similar to a setter, except there’s no spinning motor, and the trays are meant to store newly born chicks.
For the last three days of incubation, the eggs are put here. Setters and hatchers come in a variety of styles, which may be found all throughout the world: Incubators for walk-ins or corridors, Incubators with tunnels, Incubators with vertical fans
3. Air compressor system
The rotating mechanism for the egg racks in certain incubators requires compressed air to operate.
For blowing down dust and other dry cleaning in the hatchery, a big central compressed air system is required.
4. Electric power plants on standby in the event of a power outage
In the event that the local electrical supply fails, the incubators must have a backup power source.
As a result, a standby power generator must be installed on site, usually within or near the hatchery building.
The hatchery’s standby electrical generator should be able to supply all of the hatchery’s vital functions.
5. Automated hatchery equipment
Washers for hatchery trays
Systems for removing waste
Machines for transferring eggs
Vaccination apparatus for in utero
Washing machines for girls
Rack washers are used to clean racks.
Systems for vaccination, sexing, and grading
Pumps with a lot of pressure
II. Egg-handling tools
1. Egg trays for hatching
Hatching eggs are usually placed in flats or bug-eye trays.
Each tray has a capacity of 90 or 180 chicken eggs.
2. Machines for transferring hatched eggs
The eggs are transferred from the breeder farm trays to the hatcher trays using this device.
Vacuum egg lifters are commonly used in hatcheries that handle enormous volumes of eggs.
III. Candler for eggs
It’s a light source that’s used to examine the inside structure of eggs.
Individual and batch candlers are the two types of egg candlers available.
IV. Brooder equipment
Brooders are devices that give warmth and light when rearing newborn chicks during their first few weeks of life.
Depending on the type, brooders include a heating source, reflectors to direct heat and light toward the chicks, and light and heat adjusting devices such as stands, thermostats, and other accessories.
The following are examples of brooding equipment:
1. Kerosene or charcoal stove
These are employed in locations where energy is scarce or expensive, and power outages are regular.
To keep the heat in the brooding area, these stoves are covered with plates or pans.
2. A gas-powered brooder
To provide heat, natural gas, LPG, or methane is linked to a heating element that is suspended 3 to 5 feet above the chick.
It is equipped with canopy-style reflectors that direct heat away from the chicks.
3. Use an electric brooder
It also has a thermostatically controlled heating system that evenly distributes the appropriate quantity of heat across a vast area, preventing direct crowding of chicks in the brooder.
300 to 400 chicks can be housed in one single brooder.
4. Infrared light bulbs
Because it is a self-reflecting bulb, no reflector is required above the bulbs.
There are 150 watt and 250 watt bulbs available to heat 150 and 250 chicks, respectively.
Hovers are the name for these reflectors.
These are heat and light reflectors.
i). Flat type hover
These hovers are flat and equipped with a heating element, heating mechanism, and pilot bulb, as well as a thermometer for keeping track of the temperature.
Instead of hanging from the roof, they are usually placed on stands on all four corners.
ii) Hovercraft of the canopy type
These concave reflectors are made out of a regular electrical bulb, a thermostat mechanism, and, in certain circumstances, a thermometer.
6. Chick guard / brooder guard
These are extremely thin sheets, hard plywood, or bamboo mats that are 1 to 1.5 feet tall and come in a variety of lengths.
They are used to limit the mobility of chicks in order to keep them closer to the brooders and prevent them from freezing.
They’re employed to keep chicks from wandering too far away from the heat source until they figure out where it comes from.
We must offer a brooder barrier with a diameter of 5 feet and a height of no more than 1.5 feet.
Depending on the season of brooding, we may use materials like cardboard sheet, GI sheet, wire mesh, and mat, among others.
Brooding takes place for 5-6 days throughout the summer. It takes 2-3 weeks during the winter season.
7. Heaters powered by electricity (heating rods or coils)
Heating components and pilot bulbs are included in this sort of brooder, as well as a thermometer for temperature recording.
Over the heating rods or coils, they used to have a reflective device.
Depending on the requirements, the temperature may be changed.
V. Feeding apparatus
Feeders are pieces of equipment that are used to feed birds by putting food in them.
They can be traditional, semi-automatic, and come in a variety of styles and shapes, and they can be constructed of metal or plastic.
There are several types of feeding devices.
1. Feeder that works automatically
Feed is delivered to the whole length of the poultry house by specially built meal troughs with auger type or chain type mechanisms to convey the feed from the feed bins to the other end in the event of an automatic feeder.
These are powered by electricity, and the feeder’s height may be modified to suit the age of the birds.
2. Linear feeder
Linear feeders with guards come in a variety of sizes.
There’s also a way to change the height of the feeder.
Galvanized iron is commonly used for linear feeders. It may, however, be fashioned out of any locally accessible material, such as wood, bamboo, and so on.
Its design must include provisions for stability and height adjustability where the feeder stands.
The linear feeder allows birds to stand on either side.
2* length = total feeder space available.
Number of linear feeders = (2*feeder length) Feeder space, all dimensions in cm
3. Feeder in a circle
These semi-automatic feeders can carry 5 to 7 kg of feed at a time in its cone.
Gravity gently delivers the feed to the bottom.
To reduce waste, it can also be fitted with feed grills.
These are normally composed of high-density polyethylene and strung from a roof/roof truss or a separate pipeline.
‘Hanging feeders’ is another name for them.
These feeders come in a variety of capacities, and when fully loaded, the feed will last 4 to 7 days, depending on the age and number of people feeding on them.
A simple clamp mechanism may quickly modify the height at which the feed is available.
Plastic feeders will be vividly coloured (usually red or blue) and hence should attract layers, particularly chicks, to feed.
With all measures in cm, the number of hanging feeders = 1.3* (Circumference Feeder space).
When compared to a linear feeder, a hanging feeder can hold 30 percent more birds.
4. Shell grit box
It is used to enhance the calcium intake of layer birds with shell grit.
VI. Water-related equipment
1. Filters and water softeners
Deposits will form on the humidity controls, spray nozzles, jets, and valve seats if the water has a high total dissolved solids content.
To minimise the TDS level of the water used in hatchery operations, filtration devices and water softeners are required.
2. Water heaters
Most hatchery tray washers, as well as routine cleaning, will require hot water.
To supply hot water, a big capacity boiler is often employed.
VII. Watering apparatus
Water is provided to the birds by waterers or drinkers.
Waterers come in a variety of sizes, designs, and shapes.
1. Type of pan and jar
This waterer is round in shape and has two compartments: a jar for filling water and a pan for dispensing it.
2. Waterers with a linear pattern / waterers with a channel pattern
This sort of waterer is frequently equipped with cages to provide a constant flow of water.
The funnel-shaped one end of a channel type waterer is meant to take water from a tap, while the other end is designed to drain surplus water.
3. Water bowl with grill made of plastic, wood, or GI
There are basins with varied sizes (10″, 12″, 14″, and 16″).
To prevent birds from entering the water, a separate grill is offered.
4. Watering system with a bell
These are composed of high-impact plastic in the shape of a bell and are normally strung from a separate pipeline.
This sort of waterer has complete control over the water flow and ensures that the proper water level is maintained at all times.
There will be a constant flow of water to guarantee that the birds have access to water throughout the day.
A simple clamp mechanism may quickly alter the height at which water is accessible, and a valve can vary the rate of water flow (spring-mounted). Plastic drinkers will be vividly coloured (red, blue) to attract layers, particularly chicks, to the water.
Number of bell-drinkers=1.3*(drinker space circumference)
5. Drinker of nipples
It’s suitable for both deep-litter and cage systems.
It is fitted with a cup under the nipple when used in a deep-litter system to keep the litter material from getting wet.
When pushed, water drips fall out of these drinkers, which resemble a nipple.
They may be used for all types and classes of birds, although laying cages are the most typical use.
In each cage with three tiers, one nipple drinker is adequate.
6. Drinker that is operated by hand
Manual drinkers are commonly employed in the first week of brooding for chicks.
They were also known as “fountain drinkers” because water came out of holes similar to those found in a fountain.
The major benefit of manual drinkers is the simplicity with which vitamins and other probiotics, medications, and immunizations may be administered through water.
There are manual drinkers with a stand made of high-impact plastic in vibrant colours (red or blue).
Drinkers are arranged at a spacing of 0.6m between any two feeders and between a feeder and a drinker.
VIII. Vaccination apparatuses
1. Syringe with needle and droppers for vaccines
It’s used to administer vaccination drops intra-nasally or intra-ocularly.
2. Automatic vaccinator
It is used to provide various vaccination dosages to a large number of birds in a short period of time, either intramuscularly or subcutaneously.
3. Vaccinator/lancet for fowl pox
These are used to inject chicken pox vaccine into the wing web area through an intradermal method.
IX. Miscellaneous apparatuses
1. Trimmer for the beak
It’s an electrical gadget that cuts a part of a bird’s beak to prevent cannibalism.
The equipment will be set on a comfortable height stand (0.60 to 0.75) with a pedal attached to the top of the unit via a chain/strong thread, allowing the heated blade to glide down and cut the beak placed on a tiny platform in the equipment when the operator presses the peddle with his foot.
A thermostat is also included in the apparatus to control the temperature.
2. Boxes for nesting
In layer or breeder homes, they are utilised to acquire clean eggs and avoid floor eggs.
Individual, communal, or trap nest nests are all possibilities.
3. Balances for weighing
To weigh birds or feed for record and marketing purposes, many types of weighing scales are available.
4. Roosts / Perches
This is a wooden contraption that is normally kept at a height of 3-5′ from the ground to assist the bird in standing over it.
5. Use the rake
It is constructed of iron rods and has a wooden handle.
In the event of a deep-litter technique of raising, this is utilised to rake the litter material.
6. Sprinkler system
This is especially crucial in hot climates.
Commercial irrigation sprinklers may be utilised to cool not just the farm buildings’ environs, but also the farm’s roof.
Sprinklers, on the other hand, are only used to cool the roof during the afternoon hours when the weather is hot and humid.
Sprayers come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
Hand-operated equipment that can be carried on the back while in use is suitable for a chicken farm.
The disinfectant or sanitizer of choice can be mixed and poured into the tank before being sprayed.
8. A flame-thrower (Blow-lamp)
It’s a really handy piece of equipment that runs on kerosene (or gas).
It’s used to burn metal frames to get rid of external parasites and/or their eggs/ larvae, and so forth.
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