Sustainable Integrated Farming System for Improving Livestock-based Agricultural Productivity & Livelihood Security in India
The need for food goods is always growing in the modern world. On the other hand, there is less water and arable land available. However, the integrated farming system is becoming increasingly significant in this situation.
Currently, integrated farming is quite successful. The phrase “integrated farming” actually refers to combining different types of animal and plant cultures such that waste produced in One operation breaks the cycle of waste by recycling it into valuable material in another.
Let’s imagine there is a piece of property with two enormous ponds and 40 bighas. There are both fish farms and flocks of ducks. There is a location where people also keep cows and goats. Aquatic vegetables are grown using their waste as fertilizer. By cooperating in one place, it is possible to reduce the cost of farming in this way.
Profitability and sustainability of agricultural sector in India is encountering numerous and complex hindrances such as maintenance of sustainability of our natural resources, adverse impact of climate change, declining factor productivity, nutrient mining and multiple nutrient deficiencies, overexploitation of groundwater resources, soil degradation due to intensive tillage practices, and decreased soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as diminishing trend in size of landholding which are expected to become drastic with the passage of time and these are some of the common concerns over wide range in most parts of the country resulting in stagnation in productivity of the system. Agriculture in our country is at crossroads in terms of obtaining sustainability primarily on three grounds; (a) the region is finding it troublesome to originate sufficient income and employment for its vast farming population, (b) failing to achieve environmental and energy security at the farm level, and (c) failing to confront or cope up with the climate change (Behera and France, 2016). Such types of concerns and problems posed by modern-day agriculture have given birth to new concepts viz. organic farming, natural farming, biodynamic agriculture, do-nothing agriculture, eco-farming, integrated farming system, etc. The essence of such farming practices simply implies, back to nature to maintain the long-run productivity of the soil-plant-animal continuum. Faced with these circumstances, such agricultural strategies need to be explored that can increase productivity and generate adequate income and employment for the smallholder farmers, as well as produce renewable energy on the farm, and stop the erosion of biodiversity and offset carbon emissions (Behera et al., 2015). In order to keep pace with the burgeoning food requirements of such a large population pressure, there is an immediate requirement to accelerate all aspects of agricultural food production with due consideration to the restoration and conservation of natural resources, which can only be accomplished through sustainable resource management and adoption of farmer participatory holistic strategies. In view of the decline in per capita land availability, it is obligatory to develop approaches and improved agricultural technologies that enable enough employment opportunities and income generation, especially for the smallholders having < 2.0 ha land who constitute the gigantic majority of the farming community in the developing world. No single farm enterprise, such as a typical monocropping system, is likely to be able to sustain the smallholder farmers. Integrated farming systems (IFS) are less hazardous if controlled effectively, as they get advantages from synergisms among several enterprises, diversification in produce, and environmental soundness. On this basis, IFS has been recommended for the development of small and marginal farms, and researchers have developed various strategies which have benefitted smallholder farmers by contributing supplementary income and employment as well as curtailing risk.
The integrated farming system approach is recognized as a resource management strategy to obtain economic and sustained productivity that encounters the diversified requirements of the farm household whilst conserving the resource base and maintaining a high level of environmental quality (Lal and Miller, 1990). IFS is an entire complex of development, management, and allocation of resources as well as decisions and activities, within an operational farm unit, or combinations of units, that results in agricultural production, processing, and marketing of the products. It is a whole farm administration strategy that incorporates the ecological attention of a diverse and healthy environment with the economic demands of agriculture to ensure a continuing supply of wholesome and affordable food. The integrated farming system, on the other hand, is a dynamic concept that must have the flexibility to be relevant on any farm, in any country, and it must always be receptive to change and technological advances. Above all, IFS is a practical way forward for agriculture that will benefit society, not just those who practice it. IFS can be defined as a positive interaction of two or more components of different nature like field and horticultural crops, livestock, aquaculture or fishery, poultry, duckery, apiculture, sericulture, mushroom cultivation, biogas production, silviculture, etc. within the biophysical and socio-economic environment of the farmers to enhance productivity and profitability in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way (Behera et al., 2004, Rautaray et al., 2005). A judicious mixture of two or more of these farm enterprises with advanced agronomic management tools may complement the farm income together with the help of recycling the farm residues. The selection of enterprises must be based on the cardinal principles of minimizing competition and maximizing the complementarity between the enterprises.
Integrated farming is growing in popularity as farming becomes more advanced in the scientific era. Significant changes are also occurring in the rural economy. Therefore, we will explore the integrated farming system below in this comprehensive post today.
What Is An Integrated Farming System?
The study of farming systems includes the integrated system. It is a sustainable strategy. It transforms the garbage from one business into food for another. An Integrated system maximizes the utilization of farm resources in this way.
For the purpose of making the most effective use of a farm family’s land, labor, and other resources, it is the scientific integration of several interacting and interdependent farm enterprises. These resources give farms specifically situated in the restricted zone year-round income..….click here to read the full news